Commercial oil production started in Pennsylvania in 1859 when Colonel Drake drilled the famous Drake well in Titusville. From there, petroleum production expanded further into the Venango, Southern and Bradford oil fields of Venango, Warren, McKean, Clarion, Butler and Armstrong Counties. Eventually, the oil belt extended to the southwest corner of the state in the Washington County area.
During this 150-year span, hundreds of thousands of gas and oil wells have been drilled in Pennsylvania.
With the number of gas wells drilled in the Commonwealth since the inception of the industry, the potential exists for natural gas to migrate from the wellbore (via either improperly constructed or old, deteriorated wells) and adversely affect water supplies, as well as accumulate within or adjacent to structures such as residences and businesses.
Collectively, this may represent a threat to public health, safety and welfare, and is a potential threat of a fire or explosion. The Department has documented such occurrences and these cases are provided in this document.
It should be noted that the Department also receives complaints of stray gas from other sources such as methane gas due to microbial processes or caused by burial of organic matter, landfills, mining activity, transmission or distribution pipeline, or natural causes. These cases are not included in this paper. The discussion in this paper is limited to gas migration cases associated with oil and natural gas wells (i.e. thermogenic in origin).
The gas migration cases are organized into several categories: new wells, operating or active wells, legacy or abandoned wells, and wells associated with underground storage of natural gas.
New wells involve that initial phase of an oil or gas well when the well is being drilled or re-drilled, completed and put into production. For most wells, well completion involves hydraulic fracturing either immediately after the well is drilled or at a later date. Operating or production wells include wells that are actively producing. It also includes wells that the operator is not actively producing and that are not plugged.
Legacy or abandoned well incidents are associated with natural gas and oil wells drilled from 1859, when Colonel Drake drilled his first commercial well in Titusville, until the present and there is no responsibility operator for the well. The well may have been abandoned by the operator and not properly plugged or plugged according to the standards or practices that were in place at the time. Some of the wells were constructed under the Oil and Gas Act, which was passed in 1984 when new standards for casing, cementing and plugging wells were established. Many were not.
These cases typically involved gas migration from old wells that were abandoned without proper plugging procedures. Often, these wells are associated with the old oil and gas fields surrounding the greater Pittsburgh area or the Bradford or Venango oil fields.
Underground Storage of Natural Gas includes gas migration problems associated with operating gas storage fields.
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