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Summary

The future of the major international oil companies (IOCs) – BP, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Shell andTotal – is in doubt. The business model that sustained them during the 20th century is no longer fit for purpose. As a result, they are faced with the choice of managing a gentle decline by downsizing or risking a rapid collapse by trying to carry on business as usual.

Who Pays the Cost of Fracking?

Weak Bonding Rules for Oil and Gas Drilling Leave the Public at Risk.

Authors: Tony Dutzik, Benjamin Davis and Tom Van Heeke from Frontier Group and John Rumpler from Environment America Research & Policy Center - 2013

Schroeders Research Paper - A review of the challenges facing the shale energy industry. April 2014.

Author: David Buchan - July 2013.

Shale gas is a divisive issue in Europe because it highlights the growing tension between the EU’s energy and climate policies.

A Market Approach to Regulating the Energy Revolution: Assurance Bonds, Insurance, and the Certain and Uncertain Risks of Hydraulic Fracturing by David A. Dana & Hannah J. Wiseman

In New York and Pennsylvania, the public debate about the prospect or continuation of high volume hydraulic fracturing for shale gas has revolved around its environmental impacts, particularly its effects on water quality, while taking as a given that exploitation of this new natural gas asset will produce significant economic benefits for the states’ economies.

Long-Term Energy Development Headwaters Economics | December 2013

Long-Term Energy Development Has Negative Impacts on Counties

This paper demonstrates that when fossil fuel development plays a prominent, long-term role in local western economies there are negative effects on per capita income, crime rates, and educational attainment.

The purpose of the study is to evaluate the relationships between oil and natural gas specialization and socioeconomic well-being during the period 1980 to 2011 in a large sample of counties within the six major oil and gas producing states in the interior U.S. West: Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

The first hydraulically fractured shale wells were drilled in Pennsylvania and West Virginia nearly a decade ago.

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